By Joshua Rhett Miller. A pint-size cheerleader in California pummeled another girl who challenged her to a fight while still in her uniform, a dramatic video shows. Nobody speaks on you guys, nobody talks about you guys. Sprague then told the girl standing over her to get her finger out of her face, quickly escalating tensions as several witnesses looked on. At one point, Sprague is seen on top of the other girl, pummeling her with vicious, repetitive, closed-fist blows to her back and face.
Unsourced material may be challenged and giilrs. Middle school cheerleading evolved Cheerleder gilrs after high school squads filrs created. Sometimes competition routines are focused solely around the use of difficult and risky stunts. Collegiate sport rituals Jocks Kiss cam Surf culture Tailgate party. The PFC, operating under the umbrella of the IFC, is the non-profit continental body of cheerleading whose aim it is to promote and develop cheerleading in the Americas. A cheerleading team may compete locally, regionally, or nationally, as well as cheer for sporting events gilfs encourage audience participation. Through innovative testing, fabrics and designs, Champion Teamwear has been able to create the Cheerleder gilrs competition cheer uniforms, all Cheerleder gilrs cheer uniforms, cheer practice wear, cheer warm-ups, youth cheerleading uniforms, cheerleading clothes and all star cheer apparel for teams throughout the United States and overseas.
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There were satisfying moments: working hard with a team, learning gymnastic skills and dance moves.
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Cheerleading is an activity in which the participants called "cheerleaders" cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity. It can be performed to motivate sports teams, to entertain the audience, or for competition. Competitive routines typically range anywhere from one to three minutes, and contain components of tumbling , dance , jumps , cheers , and stunting.
Cheerleading originated in the United States, and remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the broadcast of ESPN 's International cheerleading competition, and the worldwide release of the film Bring It On.
Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated , participants scattered around the globe in Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, France, Germany, Japan , the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. In response to faculty's abuse, college students violently acted out.
The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, and assault faculty members. This brought about American sports, beginning first with collegiate teams.
In the s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America. On November 6, , the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game.
Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity. The cheer, "Hurrah! Princeton class of graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in He transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota. These students would cheer for the team also at football practices, and special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams. Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah! November 2, is the official birth date of organized cheerleading.
Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today. In , at the University of Minnesota , women were permitted to participate in cheerleading.
In the late s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as "chap," "fellow," and "man". By the s, some began to consider cheerleading a feminine extracurricular for boys, and by the s, girls primarily cheered at public school games. In , it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over , students actively participated in American cheerleading from elementary school to the collegiate level. He also approximated that ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female.
In the s, the formation of professional cheerleading started. Women were selected for two reasons: visual sex appeal, and the ability to dance. Women were exclusively chosen because men were the targeted marketing group. These pro squads of the s established cheerleaders as "American icons of wholesome sex appeal.
Professional cheerleading eventually spread to soccer and basketball teams as well. The s saw the beginning of modern cheerleading, adding difficult stunt sequences and gymnastics into routines. Cheerleading organizations such as the American Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Advisors AACCA , founded in , started applying universal safety standards to decrease the number of injuries and prevent dangerous stunts, pyramids, and tumbling passes from being included in the cheerleading routines.
The NCAA requires college cheer coaches to successfully complete a nationally recognized safety-training program. Even with its athletic and competitive development, cheerleading at the school level has retained its ties to its spirit leading traditions. Cheerleaders are quite often seen as ambassadors for their schools, and leaders among the student body. At the college level, cheerleaders are often invited to help at university fundraisers and events. Cheerleading is very closely associated with American football and basketball.
Sports such as association football soccer , ice hockey , volleyball , baseball , and wrestling will sometimes sponsor cheerleading squads. In order to prevent injuries, there are certain rules that cheerleading teams have to follow according to their level high school, all-star, or college. According to the Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine, there are two purposes of cheerleading - to cheer on the sidelines for other athletes, and to be a "highly skilled competing athlete. Along with this evolution to the sport's structure, there have been significant advancements made to the typical cheerleading uniform.
What began as the classic sweater and mid-calf pleated skirt uniform has now come to incorporate materials that allow for stretch and flexibility. Uniform changes are a result of the changing culture since the s.
Cheerleading may seem like a light-hearted activity to some, but injuries that can come from practice or a competition can be severe if the athlete is not properly trained. There have been many catastrophic injuries from cheer, especially from tumbling and stunting.
Because of the lack of studies on injuries in competitive cheerleading, many injuries that happen could be avoided. Many colleges offer cheerleading scholarships for students. A cheerleading team may compete locally, regionally, or nationally, as well as cheer for sporting events and encourage audience participation. Cheerleading is quickly becoming a year-round activity, starting with tryouts during the spring semester of the preceding school year. Teams may attend organized summer cheerleading camps and practices to improve skills and create routines for competition.
Student cheerleaders compete with recreational-style routine at competitions year-round. Teams practice intensely for competition and perform a routine no longer than 2 minutes and 30 seconds. Like other school-level athletes, teams compete to win league titles, and move on to bigger competitions with the hopes of reaching a national competition.
The tryout process can sometimes take place over a multiple day period. The cheerleading coach will arrange for a cheerleading clinic, during which basic materials are taught or reviewed before the final day of tryouts. The clinic gives returning cheerleaders and new cheerleaders an equal chance of becoming familiar with the material.
Skills that are necessary to be a cheerleader include jumps, tumbling, motions, and dance ability. Tryouts often take place during the spring, so that the coach has the squad chosen in time to attend summer camp as a team. Middle school cheerleading evolved shortly after high school squads were created.
In middle school, cheerleading squads serve the same purpose, and follow the same rules as high school squads. Squads cheer for basketball teams, football teams, and other sports teams in their school. Squads also perform at pep rallies and compete against other local schools from the area.
Cheerleading in middle school sometimes can be a two-season activity: fall and winter. However, many middle school cheer squads will go year-round like high school squads. Middle school cheerleaders use the same cheerleading movements as their older counterparts, yet they perform less extreme stunts. These stunts range from preps, thigh stands, and extensions, to harder one-legged stunts.
In high school, there are usually two squads per school: varsity and a junior varsity. High school cheerleading contains aspects of school spirit as well as competition.
These squads have become part of a year-round cycle. Starting with tryouts in the spring, year-round practice, cheering on teams in the fall and winter , and participating in cheerleading competitions. Many teams also attend separate tumbling sessions outside of practice. During the school year, cheerleading is usually practiced five- to six-days-a-week. During competition season, it often becomes seven days with practice twice a day sometimes.
The school spirit aspect of cheerleading involves cheering, supporting, and "pumping up" the crowd at football games, basketball games, and even at wrestling meets. Along with this, they perform at pep rallies, and bring school spirit to other students.
They estimated that the number of high school cheerleaders from public high schools is around , There are different cheerleading organizations that put on competitions; some of the major ones include state and regional competitions.
Many high schools will often host cheerleading competitions, bringing in IHSA judges. The regional competitions are qualifiers for national competitions, such as the UCA Universal Cheerleaders Association in Orlando , Florida every year. All high school coaches are required to attend an IHSA rules meeting at the beginning of the season. This ensures their knowledge of changed rules and their compliance with these rules.
Not only do college cheerleaders cheer on the other sports at their university, many teams at universities compete with other schools at either UCA College Nationals or NCA College Nationals. This requires the teams to make a 2 minute 30 seconds that is full of tumbling, stunting, basket tosses, and pyramids. Organizations that sponsor youth cheer teams usually sponsor either youth league football or basketball teams as well.
This allows for the two, under the same sponsor, to be intermingled. Both teams have the same mascot name and the cheerleaders will perform at their football or basketball games.
During the early s, cheerleading squads not associated with a school or sports leagues, whose main objective was competition, began to emerge. The first organization to call themselves all-stars and go to competitions were the Q94 Rockers from Richmond, Virginia , founded in In , the National Cheerleaders Association NCA addressed this situation by creating a separate division for teams lacking a sponsoring school or athletic association, calling it the All-Star Division and debuting it at their competitions.
This situation became a concern to gym owners because the inconsistencies caused coaches to keep their routines in a constant state of flux, detracting from time that could be better utilized for developing skills and providing personal attention to their athletes. In some cases, unqualified coaches and inexperienced squads were attempting dangerous stunts as a result of these expanded sets of rules. The USASF was formed in by the competition companies to act as the national governing body for all star cheerleading and to create a standard set of rules and judging standards to be followed by all competitions sanctioned by the Federation, ultimately leading to the Cheerleading Worlds.
It included teams from all levels, with each winner continuing to the online championships, where teams from across the nation competed to win the Worlds Title. All-star differs from sideline cheerleading because all-star focuses on performing , while sideline cheers for others sport such as football or basketball. All-star is competitive teams that perform a routine for the purpose of entertainment against other teams, typically in the same divisions, to try to win.
These competitions include locals, which are normally taken place in school gymnasiums or local venues, nationals, hosted in big venues all around the U.
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There were satisfying moments: working hard with a team, learning gymnastic skills and dance moves. I also recall a fair amount of girl drama over cheers, stunts, uniforms, dance moves, and just about any other thing you can imagine cheerleaders might argue about. As a young woman not taught to recognize inequality, sexism , and sexual exploitation, I initially wanted to be a cheerleader because it filled a desire for attention and adoration. That being said, I am utterly blown away by the skill and athleticism involved in competitive cheerleading, also known as All Star cheerleading.
And in fact, all cheerleading, whether occurring on the sidelines of a game or at an All Star competition, is arguably as dangerous as football and is a serious sport to be reckoned with. Yet, the old cheerleaders-as-sex-symbols stigma still reigns in , besmirching the incredible athleticism, blood, sweat, and tears of all cheerleaders. Recreate social norms to respect women and the negative disappears. I want to play sports and have boys and girls cheer for me!
Which brings us back to the general societal perception of cheerleading. What do people really think about cheerleaders? To get a handle on the general perspective, I posted a question to several thousand Facebook followers: What immediately comes to mind when asked about cheerleaders and cheerleading?
I loved cheerleading. It was a lot of work and you had to be disciplined but it was worth it. And you learned a lot of traits that are needed in the real world such as discipline, hard work and team work.
It was also a great support system although some girls were catty and that was a negative aspect of it. Unfortunately, the skimpy skirts, bare midriffs, spandex, glitter, and huge hair bows turn the focus on their bodies as simply decorations instead of fine-tuned athletes.
I admire these young women for being able to accomplish so much. I have mad respect for all of these smart, athletic young women.
It is my job to teach her how to recognize the rampant sexism inflicted on women on a daily basis. Encouraging her to participate in a high school activity that perpetuates the sexist narrative so many of us are working so hard to dismantle goes against everything I stand for. In a post- metoo society where women continue to be underpaid and underrepresented in just about every industry, we parents need to make informed, thoughtful decisions about traditional activities that are steeped in misogyny.
Carelessly submit your children to systemic sexism, and you are complicit in the conditioning of our future generation into accepting gender bias and exploitation as cultural norms. I quit halfway through the season and never looked back. My friend Rachel Myers nails the crux of the issue. In a post- metoo society … we parents need to make informed, thoughtful decisions about traditional activities that are steeped in misogyny.
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