For a gay marriaga-Same-sex marriage in the United States - Wikipedia

Same-sex marriage , the practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Scholars and the general public became increasingly interested in the issue during the late 20th century, a period when attitudes toward homosexuality and laws regulating homosexual behaviour were liberalized, particularly in western Europe and the United States. The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents. By the early 21st century, several jurisdictions, both at the national and subnational levels, had legalized same-sex marriage; in other jurisdictions, constitutional measures were adopted to prevent same-sex marriages from being sanctioned, or laws were enacted that refused to recognize such marriages performed elsewhere. That the same act was evaluated so differently by various groups indicates its importance as a social issue in the early 21st century; it also demonstrates the extent to which cultural diversity persisted both within and among countries.

For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. It also decides the Prop 8 defenders lack standing, clearing the way for same-sex unions to be legalized in California. Retrieved June 27, Opinion polls have shown that Israelis overwhelmingly support recognizing same-sex unions. Louis, Aa 5 November St. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Our Latest Updates For a gay marriaga after 30 days.

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Royal, Denis. A consistent trend of increasing support for same-sex marriage has been revealed across the world, often driven in large part by a significant generational gap in support. Alaska's appeal was refused by the Supreme Court and a federal district judge ruled Arizona's ban unconstitutional and the attorney general said he would not appeal the decision. Taking a married For a gay marriaga load Like Flr Close. Accordingly, anyone who professes to love God must be opposed to it. On 28 Novemberthe first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after it was discovered that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did marrjaga explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage, [] but these marriages were later annulled by the Governor of Quintana Roo in April Governor Andrew Cuomo immediately signed the legislation. Article 1 of the bill defining marriage as an agreement between two people was passed on 2 February in its first reading by a —97 vote. In every situation where marriage affects society, the State will expect Christians and all people of good will to betray their For a gay marriaga by condoning, through silence or act, an attack on the natural order and Christian morality. Thus, unless Congress passes a maeriaga regarding same-sex marriage on such reservations, federally recognized Native American tribes have the legal right to form their own marriage laws. On For a gay marriaga 6, marriag, Alabama's Chief Justice, Roy Mooreissued a ruling forbidding state officials Penis enlargrment before and after photos issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. On 27 Maythe National Assembly's Committee for Social Affairs removed the provision giving legal status and some rights to cohabiting same-sex couples from amrriaga Government's bill to amend the Law on Marriage and Family. Hodges ] and its potential jarriaga to American Samoa, and will provide comment when it is completed. Married straight dude gets his very segment 2 Like Dislike Close. No actual cases to date.

Prior to their decision, same-sex marriage was already legal in 37 states and Washington DC, but was banned in the remaining

  • Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in to all fifty states in through various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes, and federal court rulings.
  • Though a controversial concept, gay marriage is legalized in some countries.

Same-sex marriage , the practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Scholars and the general public became increasingly interested in the issue during the late 20th century, a period when attitudes toward homosexuality and laws regulating homosexual behaviour were liberalized, particularly in western Europe and the United States.

The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents. By the early 21st century, several jurisdictions, both at the national and subnational levels, had legalized same-sex marriage; in other jurisdictions, constitutional measures were adopted to prevent same-sex marriages from being sanctioned, or laws were enacted that refused to recognize such marriages performed elsewhere.

That the same act was evaluated so differently by various groups indicates its importance as a social issue in the early 21st century; it also demonstrates the extent to which cultural diversity persisted both within and among countries. For tables on same-sex marriage around the world, in the United States, and in Australia, see below.

Perhaps the earliest systematic analyses of marriage and kinship were conducted by the Swiss legal historian Johann Jakob Bachofen and the American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan ; by the midth century an enormous variety of marriage and sexual customs across cultures had been documented by such scholars. Ideal matches have included those between cross-cousins , between parallel cousins, to a group of sisters in polygyny or brothers in polyandry , or between different age sets.

In many cultures the exchange of some form of surety, such as bride service, bridewealth , or dowry , has been a traditional part of the marriage contract. Cultures that openly accepted homosexuality, of which there were many, generally had nonmarital categories of partnership through which such bonds could be expressed and socially regulated.

Conversely, other cultures essentially denied the existence of same-sex intimacy, or at least deemed it an unseemly topic for discussion of any sort. Over time the historical and traditional cultures originally recorded by the likes of Bachofen and Morgan slowly succumbed to the homogenization imposed by colonialism.

Although a multiplicity of marriage practices once existed, conquering nations typically forced local cultures to conform to colonial belief and administrative systems. Whether Egyptian, Vijayanagaran, Roman, Ottoman, Mongol, Chinese, European, or other, empires have long fostered or, in some cases, imposed the widespread adoption of a relatively small number of religious and legal systems.

Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion. This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmark , where the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships.

In other cases, the cultural homogeneity supported by the dominant religion did not result in the application of doctrine to the civic realm but may nonetheless have fostered a smoother series of discussions among the citizenry: Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant religious institution, the Roman Catholic Church.

The existence of religious pluralities within a country seems to have had a less determinate effect on the outcome of same-sex marriage debates.

In some such countries, including the United States , consensus on this issue was difficult to reach. On the other hand, the Netherlands —the first country to grant equal marriage rights to same-sex couples —was religiously diverse , as was Canada , which did so in Orthodox Judaism opposed same-sex marriage, while the Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative traditions allowed for it.

The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage. Hinduism , without a sole leader or hierarchy , allowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed. Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another.

In one view, the purpose of marriage is to ensure successful procreation and child rearing. A third perspective holds that marriage is an instrument of societal domination and so is not desirable.

A fourth is that relationships between consenting adults should not be regulated by the government. Proponents of the first view believe that the primary goal of marriage is to provide a relatively uniform social institution through which to produce and raise children.

In their view, because male and female are both necessary for procreation, the privileges of marriage should be available only to opposite-sex couples. In other words, partnerships involving sexual intimacy should have at least a notional potential for procreation. From this perspective, the movement to legally recognize same-sex marriage is a misguided attempt to deny the social, moral , and biological distinctions that foster the continued existence of society and so should be discouraged.

Among groups who feel strongly that same-sex marriage is problematic, there is also a tendency for the legal relationships of spouses, parents, and children to converge. Typically, these societies provide for the automatic inheritance of property between spouses, and between parents and children, and allow these close kin to co-own property without joint ownership contracts.

In addition, such societies often allow close kin a variety of automatic privileges such as sponsoring immigration visas or making medical decisions for one another; for those with whom one shares no close kin relationship, these privileges typically require legal interventions. In contrast to the procreative model of marriage, advocates of the legalization of same-sex marriage generally believed that committed partnerships involving sexual intimacy are valuable because they draw people together to a singular degree and in singular ways.

In this view, such relationships are intrinsically worthy while also quite distinct from though not incompatible with activities associated with the bearing or raising of children. Sexual partnerships are one of a number of factors that bond adults together into stable household units. These households, in turn, form the foundation of a productive society—a society in which, albeit incidentally, children, elders, and others who may be relatively powerless are likely to be protected.

From this perspective, the devaluation of same-sex intimacy is immoral because it constitutes arbitrary and irrational discrimination , thereby damaging the community.

Thus, prohibiting a specific group from the full rights of marriage was illegally discriminatory. For advocates of the community-benefit perspective, all the legal perquisites associated with heterosexual marriage should be available to any committed couple. For these reasons, they maintained that consensual intimacy between adults should not be regulated and that marriage should be disestablished as a cultural institution. A fourth view, libertarianism , had different premises from queer theory but somewhat similar ramifications; it proposed that government powers should be strictly limited, generally to the tasks of maintaining civil order, infrastructure , and defense.

For libertarians, marriage legislation of any sort—either the legalization or the prohibition of same-sex marriage—fell outside of the role of government and was unacceptable.

Same-sex marriage. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Cultural ideals of marriage and sexual partnership Religious and secular expectations of marriage and sexuality Same-sex marriage and the law International United States The future of same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage around the world. See Article History. Alternative Titles: same-sex partnership, same-sex union. Facts Matter. Start Your Free Trial Today. Load Next Page.

Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

In late , a Bulgarian same-sex couple, who married in the United Kingdom , filed a lawsuit in order to have their marriage recognised. For a rundown of the history of same-sex marriage in certain countries, see a list of page beginning with "Same-sex marriage". Fifteen U. Chicago 17th ed. Hodges in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, stating that "races don't fall in love, genders don't fall in love—people fall in love". In that sense, same-sex marriage is a social equalizer.

For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga. 2. It Violates Natural Law

Thus, same-sex couples have been allowed to marry since 1 January The Court also decided that civil unions will be open for both same-sex and different-sex couples from that date onwards.

Belgium became the second country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriages when a bill passed by the Belgian Federal Parliament took effect on 1 June A statute legalized adoption by same-sex spouses. Between mid and May , same-sex couples had their cohabitation issues converted into marriages in several Brazil states with the approval of a state judge.

All legal Brazilian marriages were always recognized all over Brazil. In November , the Court of Bahia equalized marriage in the state of Bahia. In Rio de Janeiro, the State Court facilitated its realization by district judges in agreement with the equalization instead of ordering notaries to accept same-sex marriages in demand as all others.

On 14 May , the Justice's National Council of Brazil issued a ruling requiring all civil registers of the country to perform same-sex marriages by a 14—1 vote, thus legalizing same-sex marriage in the entire country. Legal recognition of same-sex marriage in Canada followed a series of constitutional challenges based on the equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

In the first such case, Halpern v. Canada Attorney General , same-sex marriage ceremonies performed in Ontario on 14 January were subsequently validated when the common law , mixed-sex definition of marriage was held to be unconstitutional.

Similar rulings had legalized same-sex marriage in eight provinces and one territory when the Civil Marriage Act defined marriage throughout Canada as "the lawful union of two persons to the exclusion of all others". In February , a series of rulings by the Constitutional Court meant that same-sex couples could apply for all the rights that heterosexual couples have in de facto unions uniones de hecho.

On 26 July , the Constitutional Court of Colombia ordered the Congress to pass the legislation giving same-sex couples similar rights to marriage by 20 June If such a law were not passed by then, same-sex couples would be granted these rights automatically. In October , Senator Armando Benedetti introduced a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. It initially only allowed for civil unions, but he amended the text.

This was the first same-sex couple married in Colombia. In September , two civil court judges married two same-sex couples. On 7 April , the Court ruled that marriage doesn't exclusively apply to opposite-sex couples. On 28 April , the Constitutional Court rules that same-sex couples are allowed to enter into civil marriages in the country and that judges and notaries are barred from refusing to perform same-sex weddings.

On 10 February , the Constitutional Court of Costa Rica announced it would hear a case seeking to legalize same-sex marriage in Costa Rica and declare the country's same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional. Since this was an Advisory Opinion, its content is not binding.

Within hours of the Court issuing its AO, the government of Costa Rica agreed to adhere to it and fully implement it. Costa Rica's Supreme Electoral Court the institution in charge of civil registration , including the issuance of marriage certificates announced that it will obey the ruling of the IACHR and will adapt the necessary by-laws once the Executive Branch notifies the ruling.

Their marriage was set to be performed on 20 January, and would have been the first same-sex marriage in Costa Rica, [] Shortly before the marriage date, however, the Superior Council of Notaries stated that notaries cannot perform same-sex marriages until legislative change or a Supreme Court decision, putting them at odds with the Costa Rican Government and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which stated in its ruling that legislative change is unnecessary and that governments may simply issue an executive decree legalising same-sex marriage.

Carlos Alvarado Quesada , who supports LGBT rights and favors the implementation of the ruling, won the election with On 8 August , the Supreme Court of Costa Rica ruled that the prohibition of same-sex marriage in the Family Code is unconstitutional, giving Congress 18 months to reform the law or the prohibition will be automatically lifted without legislation so it will be legal after 26 May On 25 May , Denmark wrote history as the first country to make it legal to be in a registered partnership with one of the same sex.

A registered partnership was the same as a civil marriage, but was not seen as marriage in the eyes of the church. Axel and Eigil Axgil were the first ones to get married this way.

On 7 June , the Folketing Danish Parliament approved new laws regarding same-sex civil and religious marriage. These laws permit same-sex couples to get married in the Church of Denmark. The bills received royal assent on 12 June and took effect on 15 June On 26 May , Greenland , one of two other constituent countries in the Realm of Denmark , unanimously passed a law legalising same-sex marriage.

The bill passed its second reading on 26 April and was approved at its third reading on 29 April by 19 votes to The law took effect on 1 July In , gay rights activist Pamela Troya filed a lawsuit to strike down Ecuador's same-sex marriage ban and legalise same-sex marriage in the country. The lawsuit remains pending. The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Ecuador.

In May , the Ecuador Supreme Court ruled, in a lesbian parenting case, that the IACHR ruling is fully binding on Ecuador and that the country must also implement the ruling in due course.

Same sex marriage took effect in Ecuador on 8 July following the Constitutional Court ruling. Registered partnerships have been legal in Finland since A citizens' initiative was launched to put the issue before the Parliament of Finland.

The bill passed the second and final vote by —90 on 12 December , [] and was signed by the President on 20 February The law took effect on 1 March Since November , France has had a civil union scheme known as a civil solidarity pact that is open to both opposite-sex and same-sex couples.

The French Government introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, Bill , in the National Assembly on 17 November Article 1 of the bill defining marriage as an agreement between two people was passed on 2 February in its first reading by a —97 vote.

On 12 February , the National Assembly approved the entire bill in a — vote. On 12 April , the upper house of the French Parliament voted to legalise same-sex marriage. The law also allows the recognition in France of same-sex couples' marriages that occurred abroad before the bill's enactment. The main right-wing opposition party UMP challenged the law in the Constitutional Council , which had one month to rule on whether the law conformed to the Constitution.

The Constitutional Council had previously ruled that the issue of same-sex marriage was one for the Parliament to decide and there was only little hope for UMP to overturn the Parliament's vote. The law came into effect on 1 August , and the act was progressively amended on subsequent occasions to reflect court rulings expanding the rights of registered partners.

Same-sex marriage has been legal in Germany since 1 October Same-sex marriage was introduced in Iceland through legislation establishing a gender-neutral definition of marriage introduced by the Coalition Government of the Social Democratic Alliance and Left-Green Movement.

The legislation was passed unanimously by the Icelandic Althing on 11 June , and took effect on 27 June , replacing an earlier system of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.

Prior to the legalization of same-sex marriage, the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act allowed same sex couples to enter civil partnerships. The Act came into force on 1 January and gave same-sex couples rights and responsibilities similar to, but not equal to, those of civil marriage. On 22 May , Ireland held a referendum. The referendum proposed to add to the Irish Constitution : "marriage may be contracted in accordance with law by two persons without distinction as to their sex".

Higgins signed the result of the May referendum into law, [] which made Ireland the first country in the world to approve same-sex marriage at a nationwide referendum. The Parliament approved a bill to legalise same-sex marriage on 18 June Prime Minister Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, with whom he had been in a civil partnership since Malta has recognized same-sex unions since April , following the enactment of the Civil Unions Act , first introduced in September It established civil unions with same rights, responsibilities, and obligations as marriage, including the right of joint adoption and recognition of foreign same-sex marriage.

The first foreign same-sex marriage was registered on 29 April and the first civil union was performed on 14 June It was signed into law and published in the Government Gazette on 1 August In individual cases, same-sex couples have been given judicial approval to marry in all other states.

Since August , same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception. On 21 December , the Legislative Assembly of Mexico City formerly the Federal District of Mexico City legalized same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples. The law was enacted eight days later and became effective in early March On 28 November , the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after it was discovered that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage, [] but these marriages were later annulled by the Governor of Quintana Roo in April On 11 February , the Congress of Coahuila approved adoptions by same-sex couples.

A bill legalizing same-sex marriages passed on 1 September , making Coahuila the first state and second jurisdiction after Mexico City to reform its Civil Code to allow for legal same-sex marriages. On 12 June , the Governor of Chihuahua announced that his administration would no longer oppose same-sex marriages in the state. The order was effective immediately, thus making Chihuahua the third state to legalize such unions.

On 3 June , the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation released a "jurisprudential thesis" that found state-laws defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman unconstitutional.

The ruling standardized court procedures across Mexico to authorize same-sex marriages. However, given the nature of the ruling, judges and courts throughout Mexico must approve any application for a same-sex marriage. On 25 June , following the Supreme Court's ruling striking down district same-sex marriage bans, the Civil Registry of Guerrero announced that they had planned a collective same-sex marriage ceremony for 10 July and indicated that there would have to be a change to the law to allow gender-neutral marriage, passed through the state Legislature before the official commencement.

On 17 December , the Congress of Nayarit approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. The Netherlands was the first country to extend marriage laws to include same-sex couples, following the recommendation of a special commission appointed to investigate the issue in A same-sex marriage bill passed the House of Representatives and the Senate in , taking effect on 1 April In the Dutch Caribbean special municipalities of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba , marriage is open to same-sex couples.

A law enabling same-sex couples to marry in these municipalities passed and came into effect on 10 October New Zealand's dependent territory, Tokelau , and associated states, Cook Islands and Niue , have their own marriage laws and do not perform or recognise same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage became legal in Norway on 1 January when a gender-neutral marriage bill was enacted after being passed by the Norwegian legislature, the Storting , in June Gender-neutral marriage replaced Norway's previous system of registered partnerships for same-sex couples.

Couples in registered partnerships are able to retain that status or convert their registered partnership to a marriage. No new registered partnerships may be created. Portugal created de facto unions similar to common-law marriage for cohabiting opposite-sex partners in , and extended these unions to same-sex couples in However, the extension did not allow for same-sex adoption, either jointly or of stepchildren.

On 11 February , Parliament approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage. The Portuguese President promulgated the law on 8 April and the law was effective on 5 June , making Portugal the eighth country to legalize nationwide same-sex marriage; however, adoption was still denied for same-sex couples. In December , the Portuguese Parliament approved a bill to recognise adoptions rights for same-sex couples.

Legal recognition of same-sex marriages in South Africa came about as a result of the Constitutional Court 's decision in the case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie. The court ruled on 1 December that the existing marriage laws violated the equality clause of the Bill of Rights because they discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation.

The court gave Parliament one year to rectify the inequality. It became law on 30 November South Africa became the fifth country, the first in Africa, and the second outside Europe, to legalize same-sex marriage. Spain was the third country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, which has been legal since 3 July , and was supported by the majority of the Spanish people.

King Juan Carlos , who by law has up to 30 days to decide whether to grant royal assent to laws, signed it on 1 July The law was published on 2 July Same-sex marriage in Sweden has been legal since 1 May , following the adoption of a new gender-neutral law on marriage by the Swedish Parliament on 1 April , making Sweden the seventh country in the world to open marriage to same-sex couples nationwide. Marriage replaced Sweden's registered partnerships for same-sex couples. Existing registered partnerships between same-sex couples remained in force with an option to convert them into marriages.

On 22 December , a proposed amendment to the Civil Code that would legalize same-sex marriage was due to go under review by the Judiciary Committee.

The amendment, called the marriage equality amendment, would insert neutral terms into the Civil Code replacing ones that imply heterosexual marriage, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage. It would also allow same-sex couples to adopt children.

In October , two new same-sex marriage bills were introduced to the Legislative Yuan. On 24 May , the Constitutional Court ruled that same-sex couples have the right to marry, and gave the Taiwanese Government two years to amend the law to that effect.

It was also ruled that if the law was not amended after two years, same-sex couples would automatically be able to register valid marriage applications in Taiwan. On 17 May , lawmakers in Taiwan approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage, a landmark decision that made the self-ruled island the first country in Asia to pass gay marriage legislation.

Since , same-sex couples have been allowed to enter into civil partnerships , a separate union providing the legal consequences of marriage. In , the High Court rejected a legal bid by a British lesbian couple who had married in Canada to have their union recognised as a marriage in the UK rather than a civil partnership.

In September , the Coalition Government announced its intention to introduce same-sex civil marriage in England and Wales by the May general election.

In May , three religious groups Quakers, Liberal Judaism and Unitarians sent a letter to David Cameron, asking that they be allowed to solemnise same-sex weddings. In June , the UK Government completed the consultation to allow civil marriage for same-sex couples in England and Wales.

In December , the Prime Minister, David Cameron , announced that, whilst he favoured allowing same-sex marriage within a religious context, provision would be made guaranteeing no religious institution would be required to perform such ceremonies. The Scottish Government conducted a three-month-long consultation that ended on 9 December The analysis was published in July Whilst the Scottish Government was in favour of same-sex marriage, it stated that no religious body would be forced to hold such ceremonies once legislation is enacted.

On 4 February , the Scottish Parliament overwhelmingly passed legislation legalising same-sex marriage. The Northern Ireland Executive has stated that it does not intend to introduce legislation allowing for same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland.

Same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions are treated as civil partnerships. In February , Bermuda passed the Domestic Partnership Act , revoking same-sex marriage, which had been legalised by a May Supreme Court ruling. On 23 November , the court upheld the Supreme Court's ruling, by which same-sex marriage became again legal in Bermuda. In the Crown dependencies , same-sex marriage has been legal in the Isle of Man since 22 July , in Guernsey and Alderney since 2 May and 14 June , respectively and in Jersey since 1 July Same-sex marriage in the United States expanded from one state in to all fifty states in through various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes, and federal court rulings.

The fifty states each have separate marriage laws , which must adhere to rulings by the Supreme Court of the United States that recognize marriage as a fundamental right that is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , as first established in the landmark civil rights case of Loving v. Civil rights campaigning in support of marriage without distinction as to sex or sexual orientation began in the s.

Nelson saw the Supreme Court of the United States decline to become involved. Lewin that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex.

Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. From through to , as the tide of public opinion continued to move towards support of same-sex marriage, various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiatives , and federal court rulings established same-sex marriage in thirty-six of the fifty states.

The first two decades of the 21st century saw same-sex marriage receive support from prominent figures in the civil rights movement , including Coretta Scott King , John Lewis , Julian Bond , and Mildred Loving. Windsor , leading to federal recognition of same-sex marriage, with federal benefits for married couples connected to either the state of residence or the state in which the marriage was solemnized. Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United States , with support continuing to rise thereafter. Uruguay's Chamber of Deputies passed a bill on 12 December , to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples. On 10 April , the Chamber of Deputies passed the amended bill by a two-thirds majority 71— The president promulgated the law on 3 May and it took effect on 5 August.

Armenia has historically had few protections or recognition in law of same-sex couples. This changed in July , when the Ministry of Justice revealed that all marriages performed abroad are valid in Armenia, including marriages between people of the same sex. As of early , "no such recognition has yet been documented. The Bulgarian Constitution forbids the legalisation of same-sex marriage, stipulating that marriage can only be between a man and a woman.

In late , a Bulgarian same-sex couple, who married in the United Kingdom , filed a lawsuit in order to have their marriage recognised. The couple, an Australian woman and her French spouse, had married in France in , but were denied residency in Bulgaria a year later when they attempted to move there.

Michelle Bachelet , the President of Chile, who was elected to a second term in March , promised to work for the implementation of same-sex marriage and had a majority in both houses of Congress. Previously, she said, "Marriage equality, I believe we have to make it happen.

The Government announced that they would drop their opposition to same-sex marriage. A formal agreement between the two parties and the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights was signed in April On 28 January , the National Congress approved a bill recognizing civil unions for same-sex and opposite-sex couples offering some of the rights of marriage. Bachelet signed the bill on 14 April, and it came into effect on 22 October. In September , President Bachelet stated before a United Nations General Assembly panel that the Chilean Government would submit a same-sex marriage bill to Congress in the first half of The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Chile.

The Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China explicitly defines marriage as the union between one man and one woman. No other form of civil union is recognized. The attitude of the Chinese Government towards homosexuality is believed to be "three nos": "No approval; no disapproval; no promotion. According to Chinese law, 35 delegates' signatures are needed to make an issue a bill to be discussed in the Congress.

Her efforts failed due to lack of support from the delegates. On 5 January , a court in Changsha , southern Hunan Province , agreed to hear the lawsuit of year-old Sun Wenlin filed in December against the Bureau of Civil Affairs of Furong District for its June refusal to let him marry his year-old male partner, Hu Mingliang. On 13 April , with hundreds of same-sex marriage supporters outside, the Changsha court ruled against Sun, who vowed to appeal, citing the importance of his case for LGBT progress in China.

Currently, Article 36 of the Constitution of Cuba defines marriage as "the voluntarily established union between a man and a woman". Before the October election , LGBT activists started a public campaign with the aim of achieving same-sex marriage within the next four years. In August , a lawyer in El Salvador filed a lawsuit before the country's Supreme Court asking for the nullification of Article 11 of the Family Code, which defines marriage as a heterosexual union.

Labeling the law as discriminatory and explaining the lack of gendered terms used in Article 34 of the Constitution 's summary of marriage, the lawsuit sought to allow same-sex couples the right to wed. A second lawsuit against the same-sex marriage ban was filed on 11 November In October , the Estonian legislature, the Riigikogu , approved a civil union law open to both opposite-sex and same-sex couples. In December , the Tallinn Circuit Court ruled that same-sex marriages concluded in another country must be recorded in the civil registry.

However, they do not count as marriages for the purpose of granting spousal residency rights. In , a man filed a challenge against Georgia's same-sex marriage ban, arguing that while the Civil Code of Georgia states that marriage is explicitly between a man and a woman; the Constitution does not reference gender in its section on marriage.

In September , the Georgian Parliament approved a constitutional amendment establishing marriage as "a union between a woman and a man for the purpose of creating a family".

Parliament overrode his veto on 13 October. Same-sex marriage is not explicitly prohibited under Indian law and at least one couple has had their marriage recognised by the courts. In April , Medha Patkar of the Aam Aadmi Party stated that her party supports the legalisation of same-sex marriage.

As of , a draft of a Uniform Civil Code that would legalise same-sex marriage has been proposed. Although same-sex couples are not legally recognized currently by any form, performing a symbolic same-sex marriage is not prohibited under Indian law either.

In , Israel's High Court of Justice ruled to recognize foreign same-sex marriages for the limited purpose of registration with the Administration of Border Crossings, Population and Immigration; however, this is merely for statistical purposes and grants no state-level rights.

Israel does not recognize civil marriages performed under its own jurisdiction. A bill was raised in the Knesset Israeli Parliament to rescind the High Court's ruling, but the Knesset did not advance the bill.

A bill to legalize same-sex and interfaith civil marriages was defeated in the Knesset, 39—11, on 16 May In November , the National LGBT Taskforce of Israel petitioned the Supreme Court of Israel to allow same-sex marriage in the country, arguing that the refusal of the rabbinical court to recognise same-sex marriage should not prevent civil courts from performing same-sex marriages.

Opinion polls have shown that Israelis overwhelmingly support recognizing same-sex unions. The cities of Bologna , Naples and Fano began recognizing same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions in July , [] [] followed by Empoli , Pordenone , Udine and Trieste in September, [] [] [] and Florence , Piombino , Milan and Rome in October, [] [] and by Bagheria in November.

A January Datamonitor poll found that On 25 February , the Italian Senate passed a bill allowing civil unions with senators in favour and 73 against. That same bill was approved by the Chamber of Deputies on 11 May with deputies in favour and 51 against. On 31 January , the Italian Supreme Court of Cassation ruled that same-sex marriages performed abroad can be fully recognized by court order, when at least one of the two spouses is a citizen of a European Union country where same-sex marriage is legal.

Same-sex marriage is not legal in Japan. Article 24 of the Japanese Constitution states that "Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis.

On 27 May , the Constitutional Court of Latvia overturned an administrative court decision that refused an application to register a same-sex marriage in the country. A Supreme Court press spokeswoman said that the court agrees with the administrative court that current regulations do not allow for same-sex marriages to be legally performed in Latvia.

However, the matter should have been considered in a context not of marriage, but of registering familial partnership. In November , the Supreme Court of Nepal issued final judgment on matters related to LGBT rights, which included permitting same-sex couples to marry. Same-sex marriage and protection for sexual minorities were to be included in the new Nepalese Constitution required to be completed by 31 May In October , the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare constituted a committee for the purpose of preparing a draft bill to legalize same-sex marriage.

On 17 October , a married same-sex couple filed an action of unconstitutionality seeking to recognise same-sex marriages performed abroad. As the Supreme Court was deliberating on the two cases, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled on 9 January that countries signatory to the American Convention on Human Rights must legalise same-sex marriage. On 16 January, the Panamanian Government welcomed the decision. Vice President Isabel Saint Malo , speaking on behalf of the Government, announced that the country would fully abide by the ruling.

Official notices, requiring compliance with the ruling, were sent out to various governmental departments that same day. On 14 February , a bill legalizing same-sex marriage was introduced in the Peruvian Congress.

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Peru.

Same-sex marriages and civil unions are currently not recognized by the state, the illegal insurgent Communist Party of the Philippines performs same-sex marriages in territories under its control since President Rodrigo Duterte supports the legalization of same-sex marriage, but feels that such a law may not pass in Congress yet as many are still influenced heavily by colonial-era Christian ideals.

He also supports same-sex civil unions, which has a higher possibility for passage and is supported by the majority of congresspersons. On 19 June , the Supreme Court of the Philippines heard oral arguments in a case seeking to legalise same-sex marriage in the Philippines.

On 5 June , the European Court of Justice ECJ ruled, in a case originating from Romania, that same-sex couples have the same residency rights as different-sex couples, when a national of an EU country gets married while resident in an EU country where same-sex marriage is legal, and the spouse is from a non-EU country. In December , the eco-socialist United Left party introduced a bill amending the definition of marriage in the Marriage and Family Relations Act to include same-sex couples.

In January , the Government expressed no opposition to the bill. In February , the bill was passed with 11 votes to 2. In March, the Assembly passed the final bill in a 51—28 vote. On 10 March , the National Council rejected a motion to require the Assembly to vote on the bill again, in a 14—23 vote. Opponents of the bill launched a petition for a referendum and managed to collect 40, signatures. The Parliament then voted to block the referendum with a clarification that it would be against the Slovenian Constitution to vote on matters concerning human rights.

Finally, the Constitutional Court ruled against the banning of the referendum 5—4 and the referendum was held on 20 December In the referendum, In July , Kim Jho Kwang-soo and his partner, Kim Seung-Hwan, filed a lawsuit seeking legal status for their marriage after their marriage registration form was rejected by the local authorities in Seoul. On 25 May , a South Korean district court ruled against the couple and argued that without clear legislation a same-sex union can not be recognized as a marriage.

In December , a South Korean appeals court upheld the district court ruling. The couple vowed to bring the case to the Supreme Court of South Korea. A same-sex marriage bill is pending in Parliament after the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland , [] introduced a constitutional initiative to legalize same-sex marriage in December , in opposition to a Christian Democrat initiative banning same-sex marriage.

In March , the Swiss Federal Council released a governmental report about marriage and new rights for families. It opens the possibility to introduce registered partnerships for different-sex couples as well as same-sex marriage for same-sex couples. This initiative would change article 14 of the Swiss Federal Constitution and aimed to put equal fiscal rights and equal social security benefits between married couples and unmarried cohabiting couples. However, the text aimed to introduce as well in the Constitution for the first time ever the definition of marriage, which would be the sole "union between a man and a woman".

In April , the Supreme Court announced it would hear a lawsuit that seeks to declare Article 44 of the Civil Code unconstitutional for outlawing same-sex marriage. In Vietnam, currently only a marriage between a man and a woman is recognized.

Vietnam's Ministry of Justice began seeking advice on legalizing same-sex marriage from other governmental and non-governmental organizations in April and May , and planned to further discuss the issue at the National Assembly in Spring The Vietnamese Government abolished an administrative fine imposed on same-sex weddings in Although same-sex marriages are not permitted in Vietnam, the policy will decriminalize the relationship, habitual privileges such as household registry, property, child raising, and co-habitual partnerships are recognized.

In June , the National Assembly began formal debate on a proposal to establish legal recognition for same-sex marriage. The decree took effect on 11 November On 27 May , the National Assembly's Committee for Social Affairs removed the provision giving legal status and some rights to cohabiting same-sex couples from the Government's bill to amend the Law on Marriage and Family.

On 1 January , the Law on Marriage and Family officially went into effect. It states that while Vietnam allows same-sex weddings, it will not offer legal recognition or protection to unions between people of the same sex.

Agreements with the host country safeguard these organizations' impartiality. Despite their relative independence, few organizations recognize same-sex partnerships without condition. The agencies of the United Nations recognize same-sex marriages if the country of citizenship of the employees in question recognizes the marriage.

However, the World Bank does recognize domestic partners. Civil union, civil partnership , domestic partnership , registered partnership , unregistered partnership, and unregistered cohabitation statuses offer varying legal benefits of marriage.

On a subnational level, the Mexican state of Tlaxcala , the Dutch constituent country of Aruba and Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom allow same-sex couples to access civil unions or partnerships, but restrict marriage to couples of the opposite sex. Additionally, various cities and counties in Cambodia and Japan offer same-sex couples varying levels of benefits, which include hospital visitation rights and others.

Additionally, sixteen countries that have legalized same-sex marriage still have an alternative form of legal recognition for same-sex couples, usually available to heterosexual couples as well: Argentina , Australia , Austria , Belgium , Brazil , Colombia , Ecuador , France , Luxembourg , Malta , the Netherlands , Portugal , South Africa , Spain , the United Kingdom and Uruguay.

Female same-sex marriage is practiced among the Gikuyu , Nandi , Kamba , Kipsigis , and to a lesser extent neighboring peoples. However, this is not seen as homosexual, but is instead a way for families without sons to keep their inheritance within the family. In Nigeria, homosexual activity between men, but not between women, is illegal. In , Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo introduced legislation that prohibits same-sex marriages and criminalizes anyone who "performs, witnesses, aids or abets" such ceremonies.

Among the Igbo people and probably other peoples in the south of the country, there are circumstances where a marriage between women is considered appropriate, such as when a woman has no child and her husband dies, and she takes a wife to perpetuate her inheritance and family lineage.

While few societies have recognized same-sex unions as marriages, the historical and anthropological record reveals a large range of attitudes towards same-sex unions ranging from praise, through full acceptance and integration, sympathetic toleration, indifference, prohibition and discrimination, to persecution and physical annihilation.

Scientific literature indicates that parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally recognized union either a mixed-sex or same-sex union. As a result, professional scientific associations have argued for same-sex marriage to be legally recognized as it will be beneficial to the children of same-sex parents or carers.

Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents. All states that allow same-sex marriage also allow the joint adoption of children by people of the same sex, with the exceptions of Jalisco, Nayarit and Quintana Roo in Mexico.

Some additional states allow stepchild adoption by those who are in a same-sex relationship but are unmarried: Croatia , Estonia , Italy on a case-by-case basis , Slovenia and Switzerland. A gay or bisexual man has the option of surrogacy , the process in which a woman bears a child for another person through artificial insemination or carries another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg to birth.

A lesbian or bisexual woman has the option of artificial insemination. When sex is defined legally, it may be defined by any one of several criteria: the XY sex-determination system , the type of gonads , the type of external sexual features, or the person's social identification.

In any legal jurisdiction where marriages are defined without distinction of a requirement of a male and female, these complications do not occur.

In addition, some legal jurisdictions recognize a legal and official change of gender, which would allow a transgender male or female to be legally married in accordance with an adopted gender identity.

In the United Kingdom, the Gender Recognition Act allows a person who has lived in their chosen gender for at least two years to receive a gender recognition certificate officially recognizing their new gender. Such people are then free to enter or re-enter civil partnerships or marriages in accordance with their newly recognized gender identity.

Nelson saw the Supreme Court of the United States decline to become involved. Lewin that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex. Department of Public Health that it was unconstitutional under the state constitution for the state to abridge marriage on the basis of sex.

From through to , as the tide of public opinion continued to move towards support of same-sex marriage, various state court rulings, state legislation, direct popular votes referendums and initiatives , and federal court rulings established same-sex marriage in thirty-six of the fifty states. The first two decades of the 21st century saw same-sex marriage receive support from prominent figures in the civil rights movement , including Coretta Scott King , John Lewis , Julian Bond , and Mildred Loving.

Windsor , leading to federal recognition of same-sex marriage, with federal benefits for married couples connected to either the state of residence or the state in which the marriage was solemnized.

Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The ruling of the Supreme Court in Obergefell occurred following decades of consistently rising national public support for same-sex marriage in the United States , with support continuing to rise thereafter.

A study of nationwide data from January to December revealed that the establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation, resulting in approximately , fewer children attempting suicide each year in the United States.

The history of same-sex marriage in the United States dates from the early s, when the first lawsuits seeking legal recognition of same-sex relationships brought the question of civil marriage rights and benefits for same-sex couples to public attention though they proved unsuccessful. Miike that suggested the possibility that the state's prohibition might be unconstitutional. That decision was met by actions at both the federal and state level to restrict marriage to male-female couples, notably the enactment at the federal level of the Defense of Marriage Act.

On May 17, , Massachusetts became the first U. Department of Public Health six months earlier. Just as with the Hawaii decision, the legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts provoked a reaction from opponents of same-sex marriage that resulted in further legal restrictions being written into state statutes and constitutions. The movement to obtain marriage rights for same-sex couples expanded steadily from that time until in late lawsuits had been brought in every state that still denied marriage licenses to same-sex couples.

In some jurisdictions legalization came through the action of state courts or the enactment of state legislation. On November 6, , Maine , Maryland , and Washington became the first states to legalize same-sex marriage through popular vote. Same-sex marriage has been legalized in the District of Columbia and 21 Native American tribal nations as well.

The June decision of the U. Supreme Court in United States v. Windsor striking down the law barring federal recognition of same-sex marriage gave significant impetus to the progress of lawsuits that challenged state bans on same-sex marriage in federal court.

Since that decision, with only a few exceptions, U. District Courts and Courts of Appeals have found state bans on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, as have several state courts. The exceptions have been a state court in Tennessee, U.

Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The U. Supreme Court has agreed to hear appeals from that circuit's decision. On June 26, , the U. Supreme Court struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, legalized it in all fifty states, and required states to honor out-of-state same-sex marriage licenses in the case Obergefell v. The legal issues surrounding same-sex marriage in the United States are determined by the nation's federal system of government, in which the status of a person, including marital status, is determined in large measure by the individual states.

Prior to , same-sex marriage was not performed or recognized in any U. The Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges ended all inter-state legal complications surrounding same-sex marriage, as it orders states to both perform the marriages of same-sex couples and to recognize the marriages of same-sex couples performed in other states. Since July 9, , married same-sex couples throughout the United States have had equal access to all the federal benefits that married opposite-sex couples have.

DOMA's Section 2 says that no state needs to recognize the legal validity of a same-sex relationship even if recognized as marriage by another state. It purports to relieve a state of its reciprocal obligation to honor the laws of other states as required by the Constitution's full faith and credit clause. DOMA's Section 3 defined marriage for the purposes of federal law as a union of one man and one woman.

On July 8, , Judge Joseph Tauro of the District Court of Massachusetts held that the denial of federal rights and benefits to lawfully married Massachusetts same-sex couples is unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the U.

United States. As a result of the Windsor decision, married same-sex couples—regardless of domicile—have federal tax benefits including the ability to file joint federal income tax returns , military benefits, federal employment benefits, and immigration benefits.

Prior to the Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges on June 26, , the VA and SSA could provide only limited benefits to married same-sex couples living in states where same-sex marriage was not legal. The federal government recognizes the marriages of same-sex couples who married in certain states in which same-sex marriage was legal for brief periods between the time a court order allowed such couples to marry and that court order was stayed, including Michigan.

The federal government also recognized marriages performed in Utah from December 20, to January 6, , even while the state didn't. Under similar circumstances, the federal government never took a position on Indiana or Wisconsin 's marriages performed in brief periods, though it did recognize them once the respective states announced they would do so. It had not taken a position with respect to similar marriages in Arkansas [37] prior to the Obergefell decision legalizing and recognizing same-sex marriages in all fifty states.

Opponents of same-sex marriage have worked to prevent individual states from recognizing same-sex unions by attempting to amend the United States Constitution to restrict marriage to heterosexual unions. In , the Federal Marriage Amendment , which would have prohibited states from recognizing same-sex marriages, was approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee on a party-line vote and was debated by the full Senate, but was ultimately defeated in both houses of Congress.

Same-sex marriages are licensed in and recognized by all U. Hodges ] and its potential applicability to American Samoa, and will provide comment when it is completed. On January 6, , Alabama's Chief Justice, Roy Moore , issued a ruling forbidding state officials from issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. In May Moore was charged with ethics violations by the state Judicial Inquiry Commission for the ruling, [43] subsequently being suspended from the bench for the remainder of his term on September 30 of that year.

Officials of one county in Texas are still unwilling to issue licenses to same-sex couples, as of August Those wishing to marry in these counties must travel to another county to obtain a license.

Post- Obergefell , six states have, on occasion, attempted to deny same-sex couples full adoption rights to varying degrees.

In Arkansas , Florida , Indiana , and Wisconsin , same-sex couples have been met with rejection when trying to get both parents' names listed on the birth certificate. Supreme Court reversed, restoring joint custody to the adoptive mother on March 7, Mississippi had once banned same-sex couples from adopting, but the law requiring this was ruled unconstitutional by the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi on March 31, With that ruling, adoption by same-sex couples became legal in all fifty states.

On June 26, , the Supreme Court ruled by a vote in the case of Pavan v. Smith that under their decision in Obergefell , same-sex couples must be treated equally to opposite-sex couples in the issuance of birth certificates. In December , the Supreme Court of Arkansas upheld a state law only allowing opposite-sex couples to be automatically listed as parents on their children's birth certificates, while prohibiting same-sex couples from being allowed the same on an equal basis.

The Supreme Court summarily reversed the Arkansas Supreme Court, finding that the disparity in treatment violated their decision in Obergefell. The Supreme Court decision legalizing same-sex marriage in the states and territories did not legalize same-sex marriage in Native American tribal nations. In the United States, Congress not the federal courts has legal authority over Native reservations.

Thus, unless Congress passes a law regarding same-sex marriage on such reservations, federally recognized Native American tribes have the legal right to form their own marriage laws. Some tribes have passed legislation specifically addressing same-sex relationships and some specify that state law and jurisdiction govern tribal marriages.

As of August , same-sex marriage is legally recognized in at least 44 tribal nations. Prior to Obergefell , same-sex marriage was legal to at least some degree in thirty-eight states, one territory Guam and the District of Columbia ; of the states, Missouri , Kansas , and Alabama had restrictions. Until United States v. Windsor , it was only legal in 12 states and District of Columbia. Beginning in July , over forty federal and state courts cited Windsor to strike down state bans on the licensing or recognition of same-sex marriage.

Missouri recognized same-sex marriages from out of state and same-sex marriages licensed by the City of St. Louis under two separate state court orders ; two other jurisdictions issued such licenses as well. Some counties in Alabama issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples for three weeks until the state Supreme Court ordered probate judges to stop doing so.

That court's ruling did not address the recognition of same-sex marriages already licensed in Alabama, but referred to them as "purported 'marriage licenses ' ". Note: This table shows only states that licensed and recognized same-sex marriages or had legalized them, before Obergefell v. It does not include states that recognized same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions but did not license them.

Prominent figures in the civil rights movement have expressed their support for same-sex marriage. Virginia in , in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on inter-racial marriage , issued a statement on the 40th anniversary of the ruling in which she expressed her support for same-sex marriage and described it as a civil right akin to inter-racial marriage, stating that "I believe all Americans, no matter their race, no matter their sex, no matter their sexual orientation, should have that same freedom to marry".

Hodges in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, stating that "races don't fall in love, genders don't fall in love—people fall in love". The NAACP , the leading African-American civil rights organization, has pledged its support for gay rights and same-sex marriage, stating that they "support marriage equality consistent with equal protection under the law provided under the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution", and has declared that same-sex marriage is a civil right.

The Human Rights Campaign , the largest LGBT rights organization in the United States, states that "many same-sex couples want the right to legally marry because they are in love — many, in fact, have spent the last 10, 20 or 50 years with that person — and they want to honor their relationship in the greatest way our society has to offer, by making a public commitment to stand together in good times and bad, through all the joys and challenges family life brings. Journalist Gail Mathabane likens prohibitions on same-sex marriage to past prohibitions on interracial marriage in the United States.

Supporters of same-sex marriage successfully utilized social media websites such as Facebook to help achieve their aims. One of the largest scale uses of social media to mobilize support for same-sex marriage preceded and coincided with the arrival at the U.

The "red equal sign" project started by the Human Rights Campaign was an electronic campaign primarily based on Facebook that encouraged users to change their profile images to a red equal sign to express support for same-sex marriage. Opposition to same-sex marriage is based on claims such as the beliefs that homosexuality is unnatural and abnormal, that the recognition of same-sex unions will promote homosexuality in society, and that children are better off when raised by opposite-sex couples.

Some of the opponents of same-sex marriage are religious groups such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the Catholic Church , and the Southern Baptist Convention , all of which desire for marriage to remain restricted to opposite-sex marriages.

The funding of the amendment referendum campaigns has been an issue of great dispute. Both judges [] [] and the IRS [] have ruled that it is either questionable or illegal for campaign contributions to be shielded by anonymity. In the s, he had supported same-sex marriage while campaigning for the Illinois Senate.

He opposed a federal constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage. He still said the legal question belonged to the states. Ultimately, I think the Equal Protection Clause does guarantee same-sex marriage in all fifty states.

But, as you know, courts have always been strategic. There have been times where the stars were aligned and the Court, like a thunderbolt, issues a ruling like Brown v. Board of Education , but that's pretty rare. Shortly after winning the election , President Donald Trump said he's "fine" with same-sex marriage and believes it to be settled law: "It's law. It was settled in the Supreme Court. I mean, it's done. Hodges , in which he said he's personally for "traditional marriage" and that he believed same-sex marriage should be left to the states.

Several of his federal appointments have also, subsequently, announced they will uphold same-sex marriage and enforce the Supreme Court ruling, while still being personally against same-sex marriage, [] namely Attorney General Jeff Sessions and Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos.

Bush and his wife former first lady Barbara Bush have served as witnesses to a same-sex wedding, but neither has publicly stated whether this means they support same-sex marriage in general; [] George W. Bush reportedly offered to officiate the same wedding, [] but has similarly not made a public statement regarding his position on the issue as president, he was opposed.

Fifteen U. Prominent politicians who have shifted from opposing to supporting same-sex marriage include President Barack Obama , Republican senator Rob Portman , and Republican representative Bob Barr the author of the Defense of Marriage Act. In an interview on The O'Reilly Factor in August , when Glenn Beck was asked if he "believe s that gay marriage is a threat to [this] country in any way", he stated, "No I don't.

I believe that Thomas Jefferson said: 'If it neither breaks my leg nor picks my pocket what difference is it to me? The establishment of same-sex marriage is associated with a significant reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children, with the effect being concentrated among children of a minority sexual orientation.

Once same-sex marriage was established in a particular state, the reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children in that state became permanent. No reduction in the rate of attempted suicide among children occurred in a particular state until that state recognized same-sex marriage. The federal government did not recognize those marriages for any purpose. According to a General Accounting Office study, at least 1, U.

Same-sex couples whose marriages are not recognized by the federal government are ineligible for spousal and survivor Social Security benefits and are ineligible for the benefits due the spouse of a federal government employee. Some 7, companies were offering spousal benefits to same-sex couples as of [update]. In states that recognized same-sex marriages, same-sex couples could continue to receive those same benefits only if they married. Same-sex couples face the same financial constraints of legal marriage as opposite-sex married couples, including the marriage penalty in taxation.

The Congressional Budget Office study, working from an assumption "that about 0. Based in part on research that has been conducted on the adverse effects of stigmatization of gays and lesbians, numerous prominent social science organizations have issued position statements supporting same-sex marriage and opposing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; these organizations include the American Psychoanalytic Association and the American Psychological Association.

Several psychological studies [] [] [] have shown that an increase in exposure to negative conversations, media messages, and negative reactions among peers about same-sex marriage creates a harmful environment for LGBT people that may affect their health and well-being, especially among its younger members.

According to the study, the negative campaigning that comes with a ban is directly responsible for the increased stress. Past research has shown that minority stress is linked to health risks such as risky sexual behavior and substance abuse. Two other studies examined personal reports from LGBT adults and their families living in Memphis, Tennessee , immediately after a successful ballot campaign banned same-sex marriage. The studies also found that families experienced a kind of secondary minority stress, says Jennifer Arm, a counseling graduate student at the University of Memphis.

At the Perry v. In , a pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the US to an increase in the rates of HIV infection. A study by the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health found that gay men in Massachusetts visited health clinics significantly less often following the legalization of same-sex marriage in that state.

There is no complete data on the number of same-sex marriages conducted in the United States. Marriages and divorces are recorded by states, counties, and territories, plus New York City and the District of Columbia, but not by the federal government.

States such as Oregon do not distinguish between opposite-sex and same-sex marriages in their official records. The legal records on marriage and divorce belong to the states. Although this method excluded couples who file singly, these are small in number; of all married couples who file taxes, This research showed that in there were about , married same-sex couples in the country, or "roughly a third of 1 percent of all marriages" according to the New York Times.

The Population Reference Bureau reported that by October , approximately , same-sex marriages had taken place in the United States. United States federal and state case law regarding same-sex marriage:.

Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States has shifted rapidly since polling of the American people regarding the issue first began on an occasional basis in the s and a regular basis in the s, with support having consistently risen while opposition has continually fallen.

Support continues to rise while opposition continues to fall each year, driven in large part by a significant generational gap in support. As of , there is majority support for same-sex marriage in 44 states, plurality support in 4 states, plurality opposition in 1 state, and majority opposition in 1 state.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 13 October Israel Mexico 1. Same-sex union legislation Same-sex union court cases Timeline of same-sex marriage Recognition of same-sex unions in Africa Recognition of same-sex unions in Asia Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas Recognition of same-sex unions in Oceania Marriage privatization Divorce of same-sex couples Domestic partnership Military policy Adoption Listings by country LGBT rights by country or territory.

Main article: History of same-sex marriage in the United States. See also: Timeline of same-sex marriage in the United States.

See also: Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States. Performed and recognized. Recognized when performed elsewhere. Only recognized by the federal government. Further information: Same-sex marriage law in the United States by state. Main article: Same-sex marriage in tribal nations in the United States. Same-sex marriage legal.

Same-sex marriage ban overturned, decision stayed indefinitely. Same-sex marriage banned where federal circuit court has found similar bans unconstitutional. Same-sex marriage banned. Same-sex marriage legality complicated. Extended content. Main article: Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States. No recent polling data. District Court ruling in Bourke v. Beshear , which required Kentucky to recognize same-sex marriages from Canada and several U.

The plaintiffs claimed that Kentucky's ban violated the full faith and credit clause, but the court found it unnecessary to address that argument. Caldwell , who sought Louisiana's recognition of their out-of-state marriages, argued only on the basis of equal protection and due process. One of the Louisiana statutes they challenged made clear the state's assertion of its right to deny recognition to the legal act of another state: "A purported marriage between persons of the same sex violates a strong public policy of the state of Louisiana".

Supreme Court were Golinski v. Office of Personnel Management , Gill v. Office of Personnel Management , Massachusetts v. Office of Personnel Management. The New York Times. May 16, Retrieved April 6, The Advocate. Retrieved July 9, Retrieved July 18, Jeanne Theoharis February 3, The Guardian. Douglas Martin June 18, The Atlantic.

Retrieved March 11, Douglas Martin May 6, Retrieved July 14, Star-Ledger Editorial Board December 9, Retrieved December 12, August 17, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. June 26, Office of Congressman John Lewis. May 20, Retrieved April 11, April 2, Michael Barbaro May 19, Votes to Endorse Same-Sex Marriage".

May 19, Retrieved March 18, NBC News. Retrieved November 7, February 1, Archived from the original on February 2, The Keweenaw Report. December 14, Retrieved December 14, January 23, Retrieved December 20, Department of Justice. Archived from the original on November 10, Retrieved September 23, The Huffington Post.

Beshear ". District Court for the Western District of Kentucky. February 12, Caldwell ". District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana. September 3, Rejection of Gay Unions". Retrieved June 2, Freedom to Marry.

Retrieved July 19, Retrieved October 20, Immigration Equality organization. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved October 23, New York Times. Retrieved June 26, Lambda Legal.

November 15, Retrieved December 19, CBS News. USA Today. Retrieved September 4, Embassy Kuala Lumpur. August 2, Archived from the original on March 22, Retrieved July 26, The Washington Post.

Retrieved February 28, February 24, The National Law Review. Washington Blade. Retrieved September 24, June 7, Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved July 5, Montgomery Advertiser. Archived from the original on April 12, Retrieved April 3, The Independent.

Retrieved September 2, Retrieved January 6, May 7, Alabama Media Group. Retrieved September 30, July 1, — June 26, Alabama Today. June 29, Retrieved July 7, Retrieved October 21, Dallas Observer. FOX10 News. Retrieved August 29, June 22, Retrieved July 17, March 31, Retrieved July 2, Supreme Court of Alabama.

Retrieved March 24, ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved June 9, Annual Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 25, Retrieved December 26, The Census Bureau population estimate for was ,, for the states and the District of Columbia.

Same-sex marriage - Wikipedia

People of the same sex are now allowed to get married in Northern Ireland. It's been legal in England, Wales and Scotland since , now the rules have changed for Northern Ireland too. The new law came into place last night. It means two men or two women can now enjoy their own wedding.

The first same sex weddings in the country will take place in February Usually the Northern Ireland's devolved government would decide the law themselves. Same-sex marriages have been allowed in England, Scotland and Wales since , so Northern Ireland is the last part of the United Kingdom to allow the process.

In the Republic of Ireland, a referendum in voted to legalise same-sex marriage. Members of Parliament in Westminster passed the law and it came into force at midnight on Tuesday 22 October. But not everyone agrees with the change. Members of the Northern Ireland Assembly have voted five times on whether or not to introduce same-sex marriage. But the move was blocked by the DUP and challenges to that block in court haven't succeeded.

The new laws say the Westminster government must bring in new rules for same-sex marriage by 13 January Then because couples have to officially say they want to marry 28 days before they do, the first gay weddings are expected to be held in the week of Valentine's Day.

The first same sex marriages in England and Wales took place on 29 March The first in Scotland were on New Year's Eve Stormont: Why does Northern Ireland not have a government? Who are the DUP? Is this 'Spiderwoman'?! Who's dancing to what in Strictly Halloween special? Freestyle skier completes amazing training routine. Home Menu. Same-sex marriage now legal in Northern Ireland.

Why is Northern Ireland different? What's the background? Your Comments Join the conversation. To use comments you will need to have JavaScript enabled. Comment number 4. Posted by U Arisco being a Catholic it is against the commandments to have an abortion so I definitely agree with you on that.

Comment number 3. Posted by Arisco I think that it is sad that abortion is now lawful in NI. Just my opinion. Comment number 2. This comment was removed because it broke the rules. Comment number 1. Back to top. Top Stories.

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For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga

For a gay marriaga