Female sex hormones-Women's Health | Hormone Health Network

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Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

Estradiol metabolism in cirrhosis. Having a low level of progesterone can lead to irregular periodsdifficulty conceiving, and a higher risk of complications during pregnancy. This caused us to wonder what role female sex hormones changes across the MC might be having on such a recovery process. Your privacy is important to us. Qualitative variables were compared by the chi-square Female sex hormones. This stimulates Female sex hormones pituitary gland also in the brain to produce luteinising hormone LH and follicle-stimulating hormone FSHwhich in turn cause a girl's ovaries to start producing other hormones. Latest news Prostate cancer: Investigating the impact of diet. Research suggests androgenssuch as testosterone, are not sufficient by themselves to prompt sexual motivation in females. You don't have to suffer in silence any longer. To our knowledge no studies addressing the changes in hofmones level have been conducted yet.

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This hormone stimulates fat cells to grow and Female sex hormones a key component in reproduction. Too much progesterone can cause fatigue, dizziness, and an increased appetite. Having a low level of progesterone can lead to irregular periodsdifficulty conceiving, and a higher risk of complications Sexual pscychology of men pregnancy. After menopause, Female sex hormones ovaries will only produce very small but constant amounts of estrogen and progesterone. Several types of contraception use synthetic versions of female sex hormones. Search Go. The ovaries produce the female sex hormone progesterone after ovulation. After childbirth and breastfeeding. Female sex hormones affect bone and muscle growth. Advertisement - Continue Reading Below.

The two main sex hormones — estrogen and testosterone — have wide-ranging effects in the body.

  • Hormones are natural substances produced in the body.
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The two main sex hormones — estrogen and testosterone — have wide-ranging effects in the body. Produced primarily by the ovaries estrogen and testes testosterone , these hormones affect not just your sexual function but also your bones, brain, and blood vessels, for example.

As people age, the natural decline in sex hormone levels sometimes causes undesirable symptoms, such as hot flashes or a flagging sex drive. Doctors can prescribe pills, patches, gels, and creams containing estrogen or testosterone to ease those symptoms.

But are these products safe for your heart? Hormone therapy has a long, controversial history, especially with regard to estrogen. For women, advice about estrogen therapy has shifted dramatically over the decades in response to research findings. But for men, recommendations regarding testosterone aren't as robust because of a dearth of long-term studies of men taking this hormone.

Following is a summary of what we know — and don't know — about the cardiovascular effects of hormone therapy. For decades, many women took estrogen often combined with progesterone, another sex hormone starting around menopause, when hormone levels start dropping. Some sought relief from hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and other menopause-related symptoms. Kathryn M. The FDA added a warning label about the potential health risks from estrogen products, and prescriptions for hormone therapy dropped sharply soon afterward.

If lifestyle changes don't help, hormone therapy is an option for women without high cardiovascular risk. Using estrogen for a few years after menopause which begins at age 51, on average doesn't appear to causes major changes in blood vessel function, recent studies suggest. For women who need hormones, those taken transdermally — that is, delivered through a small patch placed on the skin — are less likely to trigger blood clots than hormones taken in pill form, and are therefore generally a better choice, says Dr.

Women who want to try hormone therapy should first have a doctor assess their risk of heart disease. Take the lowest possible dose for the shortest possible time, which will require annual check-ins with your doctor, she advises. Also, vaginal estrogen products creams, suppositories, and rings , which can relieve vaginal dryness and discomfort during sex, do not appear to be linked to any increased health risks, she adds.

Unlike estrogen levels, which drop rather abruptly when a woman reaches her late 40s to early 50s, testosterone levels in men decline gradually, beginning around their mids. But the trends for treating these age-related hormone drops have some similarities. Testosterone therapy is approved only for men who have testosterone deficiency caused by a disorder of the testicles, pituitary gland, or brain.

Known as hypogonadism, this can cause symptoms such decreased beard and body hair and loss of muscle mass, as well as lack of interest in sex, low energy levels, and depressed mood. But about a decade ago, pharmaceutical companies began marketing the hormone to treat vaguer symptoms associated with aging. As a result, testosterone prescriptions soared.

In , after some studies linked testosterone use with a higher risk of heart attack and stroke, the FDA added a warning about that possible danger to product labels.

Since then, testosterone prescriptions have dropped substantially. In fact, the evidence regarding testosterone's effects on the heart has been mixed, with some studies suggesting benefits or no effect and others hinting at harm. Testosterone is usually given as a gel rubbed into the skin, a transdermal patch, or by injection. Often, mildly low testosterone stems from obesity and diabetes, and treating those problems with lifestyle changes may boost testosterone levels and improve symptoms, says Dr.

Still, men with troubling sexual dysfunction and fatigue may want to ask their doctors about checking their testosterone levels, he says. For men who are 65 and older with low testosterone less than milligrams per deciliter , research suggests that testosterone therapy improves libido and sexual satisfaction, as well as other age-related issues such as low bone density and anemia.

Although the potential risks of testosterone therapy aren't fully understood, the improvements in quality of life may be worthwhile for some men, says Dr. Compared with our distant ancestors, we now spend a far greater fraction of our lives past our reproductive years, Dr. Bhasin notes. Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review on all articles.

No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. Harvard Heart Letter. Here's the latest thinking about how estrogen or testosterone therapy may affect cardiovascular risk.

Published: May, E-mail Address. First Name Optional.

Too much progesterone can cause fatigue, dizziness, and an increased appetite. Menstrual cycles are usually around 28 days long but can vary between 24 and 38 days. From beginning to end, the process of puberty usually takes at least four years. Around the time of delivery, other hormones come into play that help the womb to contract during and after labour, as well as stimulate the production and release of breast milk. The ruptured follicle closes and the production of progesterone increases. It plays an important role in the health and well-being.

Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

Female sex hormones

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Pharmacology of female sex hormones

Chronic hepatitis C CHC course revealed differences between men and women. Male gender and postmenopausal women are thought to be of the critical factors affecting HCV infection progression. The study aimed to assess female sex hormones and their relation to disease severity and treatment in HCV infected females. Subjects were divided to 2 groups: 44 CHC female patients and 44 controls. Both groups were classified to premenopausal and postmenopausal females.

We observed that lower estradiol level may be related to fibrosis severity in CHC females. Higher total testosterone and progesterone levels may be related to fibrosis severity and poor response to treatment in CHC menopausal females only.

Hepatitis C is caused by HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV in Egypt is The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C revealed several differences between men and women. Male gender is thought to be one of the critical factors in the progression of HCV infection [ 3 ]. Besides, the development of hepatic fibrosis is faster in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women [ 4 ]. In addition, serum total testosterone is associated with increased risk of both advanced hepatic fibrosis and advanced hepatic inflammatory activity in HCV infected men [ 5 ].

Sex differences are believed to be one of the factors affecting response to therapy. Female sex correlated positively with sustained virological response SVR [ 6 ]. However, early menopause associated with lack of SVR among women with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection [ 7 ].

Descriptive analytical study included 44 female patients, proven to have chronic hepatitis C infection [ 8 ] by polymerase chain reaction PCR and 44 control females, age matched to the patients, were selected from healthy blood donors, proven to be negative for HCV on hepatitis C antibody test.

Patients were recruited from Virology Center in Ismailia Fever Hospital, a referral center for treatment of HCV in Ismailia under the supervision of the Ministry of Health as part of the national project for combating viral hepatitis. Histopathological examination of histological activity and degree of hepatic fibrosis, of ultrasound guided percutaneous liver biopsy, was performed according to Metavir's score.

Blood samples were included in the study between May and October Chemiluminescence generates electromagnetic radiation as light.

The light intensity depends on a chemical reaction using a labeled enzyme and a chemiluminescent compound supplied as the enzyme substrate in excess to assure saturation kinetics. Light intensity is measured using stored master curves based on manufacturer's instructions. Patients were classified according to their reproductive status to 22 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal females in each group patients and controls. Females included were nonsmokers, of reproductive age group i.

CHC females having hepatocellular carcinoma HCC , coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus HIV , coinfection with hepatitis B virus HBV , other causes of liver disease alcoholic, autoimmune, and Wilson disease , previous liver transplant, hormone replacement therapy, hormonal contraception, and history of active substance or alcohol consumption were excluded. All regulations adopted by the ethics committee in Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, including patient consent were considered and approved.

Quantitative parametric variables were presented by mean and standard deviation SD and compared by Student's t -test. Qualitative variables were compared by the chi-square test. The demographic, clinical, biochemical, and histopathological data of the studied subjects are shown in Table 1. Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and histopathological data of patients and healthy controls. The relation between fibrosis and hormonal levels in reproductive aged and menopausal patients is shown in Table 2.

The relation between fibrosis and hormonal levels in reproductive aged and menopausal patients. The relation between virological response and hormonal levels in the studied groups is shown in Table 3.

While the majority of the reproductive aged women responded to HCV therapy, only No t -test was done for reproductive aged patients as there were great differences in numbers of each group, which cannot be compared statistically. The relation between virological response and hormonal levels in reproductive aged and menopausal patients.

Table 4 showed that the comparative relationship of hormonal levels and viral load in both groups reproductive aged and menopausal females appeared with no statistically significant value in all variables. The relation between viral load and hormonal levels in reproductive aged and menopausal patients.

The relation between fibrosis and estradiol level in reproductive aged and menopausal patients. The relation between virological response and estradiol level in reproductive aged and menopausal patients. The findings of our study reveal that CHC infection is associated with elevated levels of estradiol, total testosterone, and progesterone in both pre- and postmenopausal females when compared to their healthy controls.

This may be explained by the impaired metabolism of these hormones as a result of the defective liver function in chronic liver disease patients [ 9 — 13 ]. Menopausal Greek females with HCC females had also higher levels regarding estradiol and testosterone compared to their healthy controls [ 13 ]. To our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate progesterone level in women with HCV infection.

In addition, although hormonal levels in reproductive aged group were higher than their healthy controls they are of statistically nonsignificant values and appeared to be minimally affected by hepatitis C, while menopausal group had hormonal levels high enough to be statistically significant in all variables compared to their healthy controls, providing evidence that this group was highly affected by hepatitis C.

Our study revealed that women of reproductive age had lower disease severity as measured by the liver necroinflammation activity and fibrosis compared to older menopausal women. The observed changes in the studied hormonal levels could be implicated in these findings.

The high estradiol and progesterone levels and low total testosterone level in the reproductive aged patients may in part have protected against the development of severe liver injury.

In contrast, menopausal women exhibited greater disease severity, probably due to the decline in estradiol and progesterone levels and the rise in total testosterone level that occurs with menopause development, supporting the concept that the progression of fibrosis in women is not on the same pace: mild during reproductive age and severe after menopause.

Similar to our findings, Villa et al. According to this study they found that liver fibrosis was advanced in the early menopausal HCV infected women compared to fully reproductive or premenopausal women. In addition, late menopausal women had higher liver fibrosis compared with younger women [ 14 ]. The favorable role of estrogens in liver disease has also been suggested by Shimizu et al.

In the first case, the addition of estradiol reduced disease activity and maintained viral loads at lower levels than those observed before treatment. In the second case, it reversed hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance [ 15 , 16 ]. A number of molecular mechanisms could explain the protective role of E2; for example, E2 inhibits the transforming growth factor- TGF- b1 expression and hepatic stellate cell HSC activation, thereby suppressing the induction of hepatic fibrosis [ 15 — 17 ].

The total testosterone level was significantly higher in menopausal HCV infected females compared to reproductive aged HCV infected females. This finding is in agreement with the recently reported positive correlation between testosterone level and increased risk of both advanced hepatic fibrosis and advanced hepatic inflammatory activity in HCV infected men [ 5 ], in which higher unopposed level of testosterone related to higher severity of the disease and increased risk of HCC in men [ 25 ].

Other studies did not correlate high testosterone levels to hepatic fibrosis [ 26 ]. Potential explanations for the discordant findings of our study and those studies may include differences in underlying target populations, host factors, or difference in viral genotype.

Our findings of excess testosterone-associated risk in HCV positive females are consistent with the findings of increased liver cancer risk in males who abuse anabolic steroids, in androgen-treated Fanconi anemia patients [ 27 ], in women with hyperandrogenemia secondary to polycystic ovarian disease [ 28 ], and in HBV positive Taiwanese males with higher serum testosterone level [ 29 — 31 ].

To our knowledge no studies addressing the changes in progesterone level have been conducted yet. Estradiol level appeared to be of no significant relationship. A number of previous studies suggested, however, a potential link to estrogen secretion [ 32 , 33 ]. Another nonconcordant study, the study of Furusyo et al. Our study revealed that there was a statistically nonsignificant difference regarding viral load values between the two groups. Besides, the comparative relationship of hormonal levels and viral load appeared to be of statistically nonsignificant value in all variables of both groups menopausal and reproductive aged females.

This finding is supported by one in vitro study that treated human hepatoma-derived cell line Huh On the other hand, to our knowledge, no studies were found addressing its relation to total testosterone level. We observed that lower estradiol level is significantly related to fibrosis severity in CHC females, while higher total testosterone and progesterone levels are significantly related to fibrosis severity in CHC menopausal females only.

Besides, higher total testosterone and progesterone levels are related to poorer treatment response in CHC menopausal females, while estradiol level is not. Additionally, the detected higher hormonal levels did not have significant relation to viral load in both groups.

We suggest that screening of progesterone and total testosterone levels should selectively target females with high grade fibrosis. Our findings underscore the potential favorable effects of antitestosterone treatment to target HCV infected females. We assume that giving hormone replacement therapy to infected menopausal females would not have a beneficial effect regarding HCV course or treatment response. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Chronic Dis. Published online Aug Nora H. El-Abaseri , 1 Hesham F.

El-Sayed , 2 and Taher I. El-Serafi 1. Hesham F. Taher I. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Ahmed: moc. Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Associated Data Supplementary Materials Data sheet for age in menopausal women and estradiol levels in both groups. Materials and Methods 2. Type of Study and Selection of Patients Descriptive analytical study included 44 female patients, proven to have chronic hepatitis C infection [ 8 ] by polymerase chain reaction PCR and 44 control females, age matched to the patients, were selected from healthy blood donors, proven to be negative for HCV on hepatitis C antibody test.

Patients' Classification Patients were classified according to their reproductive status to 22 premenopausal and 22 postmenopausal females in each group patients and controls. Patients Characteristics Females included were nonsmokers, of reproductive age group i.

Patients Consent All regulations adopted by the ethics committee in Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, including patient consent were considered and approved. Statistical Analysis Quantitative parametric variables were presented by mean and standard deviation SD and compared by Student's t -test. Table 1 Demographic, clinical, biochemical, and histopathological data of patients and healthy controls.

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Female sex hormones